CBD Programme work in Uganda - Page 3

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CBD Programme work in Uganda
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Programme Element 2: Governance, Participation, Equity and Benefit Sharing
Goal 2.1 To promote equity and benefit-sharing

Target: Establish by 2008 mechanisms for the equitable sharing of both costs and benefits arising from the establishment and management of protected areas.

A revenue sharing programme is place through which benefits accruing from tourism is ploughed backed to support community initiatives including infrastructure development. Collaborative forest management programme has been established and is operational. Further, Government enacted regulations on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing in 2005.

Goal 2.2  To enhance and secure involvement of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders

Target: Full and effective participation by 2008, of indigenous and local communities, in full respect of their rights and recognition of their responsibilities, consistent with national law and applicable international obligations, and the participation of relevant stakeholders, in the management of existing, and the establishment and management of new, protected areas

Stakeholders are involved in the development and implementation of management plans for protected areas. Indigenous and local communities are involved.

Programme Element 3: Enabling Activities

Goal 3.1To provide an enabling policy, institutional and socio-economic environment for protected areas

Target: By 2008 review and revise policies as appropriate, including use of social and economic valuation and incentives, to provide a supportive enabling environment for more effective establishment and management of protected areas and protected areas systems.

Most of the policies in Uganda on natural resources were developed/revised in the early 1990’s. There is need to revise them to include valuation of protected areas.

Goal 3.2 To build capacity for the planning, establishment and management of protected areas

Target: By 2010, comprehensive capacity building programmes and initiatives are implemented to develop knowledge and skills at individual, community and institutional levels, and raise professional standards.

Capacity development for management of protected areas in Uganda is on-going. However new skills need to be developed to address emerging issues such as oil and gas, climate change and REDD+ among others.

Goal 3.3 To develop, apply and transfer appropriate technologies for protected areas

Target: By 2010 the development, validation, and transfer of appropriate technologies and innovative approaches for the effective management of protected areas is substantially improved, taking into account decisions of the Conference of the Parties on technology transfer and cooperation.

The transfer of technology for management of protected areas is yet to be realized.

Goal 3.4 To ensure financial sustainability of protected areas and national and regional systems of protected areas

Target: By 2008, sufficient financial, technical and other resources to meet the costs to effectively implement and manage national and regional systems of protected areas are secured, including both from national and international sources, particularly to support the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition and Small Island Developing States (SIDS).

Uganda has received financial support from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for the management of protected area for example the PAMSU (Protected Area Management and Sustainable Use) project and the EU support for management of natural forests. Trust funds have also been established such as the Bwindi Mgahinga Conservation Trust.

Goal 3.5  To strengthen communication, education and public awareness

Target: By 2008 public awareness, understanding and appreciation of the importance and benefits of protected areas is significantly increased. There are on-going public awareness on environment including protected area and this has helped to raise awareness on the importance of protected areas.

Programme Element 4: Standards, assessment, and monitoring

Goal 4.1 To develop and adopt minimum standards and best practices for national and regional protected area systems

Target: By 2008, standards, criteria, and best practices for planning, selecting, establishing, managing and governance of national and regional systems of protected areas are developed and adopted.

The laws on protected areas have provisions that enhance governance on protected areas. The challenge is in the implementation of the laws.

Goal 4.2  To evaluate and improve the effectiveness of protected areas management

Target: By 2010, frameworks for monitoring, evaluating and reporting protected areas management effectiveness at sites, national and regional systems, and transboundary protected area levels adopted and implemented by Parties.

There are monitoring programmes in place by UWA and NFA. The major challenge is getting adequate financial to carry out the monitoring programme on a regular basis.

Goal 4.3 To assess and monitor protected area status and trends

Target: By 2010, national and regional systems are established to enable effective monitoring of protected-area coverage, status and trends at national, regional and global scales, and to assist in evaluating progress in meeting global biodiversity targets.

There are monitoring programmes in place by UWA and NFA. Guidelines for developing biodiversity monitoring indicators are being developed and are expected to be completed in October 2012. The major challenge is getting adequate financial to carry out the monitoring programme on a regular basis.

Goal 4.4  To ensure that scientific knowledge contributes to the establishment and effectiveness of protected areas and protected area systems

Target: Scientific knowledge relevant to protected areas is further developed as a contribution to their establishment, effectiveness, and management.

There are programmes at tertiary institutions to train personnel on protected area management. However, only a small number are trained due to limited financial resources.

Progress of implementation of CBD POWPA in Uganda

Uganda has made progress in implementing the CBD POWPA. An initial analysis of the progress of implementation was carried out in 2008 and from the analysis it was found out that Uganda has put in place the necessary policies, programmes and activities that is facilitating the implementation of the goals, targets and activities of CBD POWPA. Annex 2 gives a summary of progress made in the implementation of each activity.

From the initial analysis carried out in 2008, and after consultation with stakeholders, it was recommended that Uganda needed to carry out a study on governance and the valuation of protected areas. Uganda received support from GEF to carry out the two studies and the reports of the two studies have been finalized and will soon be disseminated after stakeholder validation workshop planned for this year (2012). Highlights of the report of the study on valuation of protected areas

Although it is widely accepted that protected areas (PAs) play important roles in poverty reduction through the provision of extractable products and other ecosystem services, the statistical value have not yet been captured. Capturing the economic values of PAs will aid in the incorporation of the roles of PAs into the national accounting system and improve understanding on their importance of PAs in poverty reduction. It is against this background that a study on the valuation of PAs focusing on Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) and Budongo Central Forest Reserve (BCFR) was undertaken. This study was undertaken concurrently with a study on governance of Pas. The findings from both studies provide a good basis for the strengthening of protected area systems and management of long benefits for human wellbeing, the economy and environment.

1. MFCA and BCFR were selected as the pilot sites for the study on valuation of PAs study in Uganda. The selection was based on the following criteria:

a) Each site had to have an existing management plan or draft management plan since development of a new management plan would be expensive and would also take long;

b) The two sites had to have different ecosystems (landscape) which had to be adjacent to one another in this case a forest reserve and national park; and

c) The two pilot sites had to be under the management of different government agencies with different laws, in this case the BCFR is managed by National Forestry Authority using the National Forestry and Tree Planting Act, while MFCA is managed by Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) under the Uganda Wildlife Act.

2. A total economic valuation method was adopted to determine all returns or benefits from the two protected areas. Efforts were directed toward establishing the direct values, indirect values, option values and existence values including the benefits derived by either the use or non-use of the various resources. Other aspects considered were the costs either direct or indirect in terms of management, those associated with the management option adopted and opportunity costs.