Species

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Species - species diversity is a variety in a given region or area. This can either be determined by counting the number of different species present , or by determining taxonomic diversity. Taxonomy diversity is more precise and considers the relationship of species to each other. this can be measure by counting the number of different taxa present.

Biodiversity at the species level

High ecosystem diversity is often associated with high species richness as each ecosystem tends to have a set of species unique to it. In Uganda, species level knowledge and information on existing taxa is limited to the commonly studied species including birds, mammals, butterflies, higher plants, reptiles, amphibians and fish, because of their relative conspicuousness or economic importance. Little is known about the less conspicuous and lower but nonetheless important forms of life such as below ground biodiversity.

 

Mammals

Species - species diversity is a variety in a given region or area. This can either be determined by counting the number of different species present , or by determining taxonomic diversity. Taxonomy diversity is more precise and considers the relationship of species to each other. this can be measure by counting the number of different taxa present.
Biodiversity at the species level
High ecosystem diversity is often associated with high species richness as each ecosystem tends to have a set of species unique to it. In Uganda, species level knowledge and information on existing taxa is limited to the commonly studied species including birds, mammals, butterflies, higher plants, reptiles, amphibians and fish, because of their relative conspicuousness or economic importance. Little is known about the less conspicuous and lower but nonetheless important forms of life such as below ground biodiversity.

Mammals
Uganda is a home to over 380 mammal species of which as many as ,13 32species of which are designated asthreatened or vulnerable.and The countryis ranked 13 in the world in terms of mammal species richness (IUCN RED Data List 2008). The number of mammal species has however been changing due to local extinctions and introductions (UWA, 2010) and taxonomic . revisions. The recent publication by Wilson and Reeder (2005) for example shows that Rodent diversity is increased by 40% from 78 species known/recognized from the country to 109.Some of the vulnerable mammals include the five primates, the Mountain Gorilla Gorillaberingei ,Cchimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Ccrested Mmangabey (LophocebusLophocebus galeritus), ™shamlym monkey(Cercopithecus (l'hoesti) l'hoestiCercopithecus LHoestii), and the Rred Ccolobus monkey (Procolobusbadius). The other vulnerable species are the Carruther’sMmountain squirrel (Funisciuruscarruthersi), the Ccheetah (Acinonyxjubatus), and the Eelephant (Loxodantaafricana) (CBD, 2009).
De Brazza monkey (Cercopithecusneglectus) occurs in forests in eastern and western Uganda, while the Ccommon Eeland (Tragelaphusoryx) occurs in low densities in Lake Mburo and Kidepo National Parks. The BbohorRreedbuck (Reduncaredunca) that was once widespread is now mainly confined to conservation areas. The Lleopard (Pantherapardus) is confined to a few large forests and savannas areas; the Ttopi (DPamaliscuslunatus) has always been sparsely distributed but was mainly found in Lake Mburo National Park and the southern sector of Queen Elizabeth National Park. Most of the mammals are threatened by habitat loss, poaching and reduced abundance of prey species (CBD, 2009).
The Nnorthern Wwhite Rrhinoceros (Ceratotheriumsimum cottoni), the Bblack Rrhinoceros (Dicerosbicornis) and the African huntingwild dog (Lycaonpictus) are all extinct although eight white rhinos have recently been re-introduced back in Uganda from Kenya (CBD, 2009). A few hunting dogs thought extinctin Uganda, Some of the Wildlife dogs once considered extinct have been sighted in Kidepo Valley National Park (UWA, 2010). Other certainly extinct mammals from Uganda include the Bbongo (Tragelaphuseurycerus) that formerly occurred in Mt. Elgon forest but was exterminated between 1913 and 1914; the Wwhite-bellied Dduiker (Cephalophusleucogaster) which is believed to have been present in Semuliki has since disappeared; the Bbay Dduiker (Cephalophusdorsalis) was recorded once in the riverine forest below the western foothills of the Rwenzori mountains, but this area is so densely populated that the species cannot maysurvive there much longer; the Ookapi (Okapiajohnstonni) was previously found in the Semuliki forest but is now non-existent due to hunting; the Ggiant Eeland (Tragelaphusderbianus) which used to occur in West Nile is believed to have been wiped out in the 1970s; and the Ssteenbok (Raphiceruscampestris) is extinct because its former habitat (Mbale district) is now heavily populated (CBD, 2009).
Other Mmammals that may have special conservation action needs but whose status is not yet determined include: the rare species like such asthe Ccape clawless Ootter (Aonyxcapensis),and the Congo clawless Ootter (Aonyxcongica); species of indeterminate status like RwenzoriOotter shrew (Micropotamogaleruwenzori),and the Llong-tailed forest Sshrew (Sylvisorexsuncoides); and, species of unknown status like the East African Montane ShrewRodent Shrew (Paracrocidura maxima), Thomas bush-baby (Galagothomasi) and Jackson, M mongoose (Bdeogalejacksoni) (CBD, 2009).